An electric vehicle (EV) is a vehicle that uses one or more electric motors to derive the power train powered by a battery. A battery is a group of cells, charged through solar panels or by an external charged source. In today’s scenario, there is a method used to continuously drive an EV by swapping a battery, in which we can travel without wasting time. Due to using of renewal energy in EVs, there is a huge scope for EVs in the future. EVs 1st come in the mid-19th century when electricity was 1st choice for the electric motor to drive power trains. IC engines were the dominant method for drive-in last 100 years for heavy vehicles. But electric power remains in other vehicles such as trains and small vehicles.
Battery Of EV (ELECTRIC VEHICLES)
Battery Electric Vehicle is recharge in electric vehicle charging, it does not require petrol or diesel to run, these vehicles are charged with the help of plug-in, the motor power of these vehicles is completely dependent on the battery as not required fuel petrol/diesel to further.
Advantages of BEV
– Does not burn fossil fuels, instead uses rechargeable batteries
– It makes very low noise
It is an eco-friendly vehicle for our environment
Disadvantages of BEV
– Not beneficial for long-distance
– If you live in a high-rise or floor apartment, you may not have charging facilities.
The charging stations of these vehicles are very less, due to which there may be problems in finding the charging station.
Main Parts of EV (Electric Vehicle)
The construction of an electric vehicle is very simple. If we do tuna of petrol and diesel vehicle, then it is very easy to understand this vehicle. Here are the main parts of the electric vehicle.
1 – Battery
The battery is the heart stuff in an electric vehicle. The entire base of the electric gate rests on the battery. In a way, the battery is the food of the electric vehicle. The battery is rechargeable. After discharge, it will charge again. It uses lead-acid and lithium ions. Most of the batteries are Lithium Aryan. Its functionality is better and life is good. The main function of the battery is to provide power to the electric motor. Along with this, completes the electric supply for the signal, side light, and other functions of the vehicle. The battery overheats during charging and discharging. To overcome this overheating, gasoline is used.
2 – Electric Motor
In an electric car, a three-phase induction motor is used to drive the vehicle. We have all seen the motor. The motor converts electric energy into mechanical energy. Here three-phase induction motor runs on an AC supply. The speed of this motor is up to 18000 RPM. This motor gives speed to the car. The higher the capacity of the motor, the higher the torque of the vehicle. But the power consumption is also high.
3 – Inverter
The role of the inverter is very important in Electric vehicles. The electricity from the battery is DC. To run the AC three-phase motor, the DC supply should be converted to an AC supply. The main function of the inverter is to convert DC into AC. The input is given to the inverter. And the output is used on the motor of the car and elsewhere. The inverter also controls the frequency of the supply Due to which the speed of the motor becomes less and more.
4 – Charging Point
Be it an electric scooter or a car, every electric vehicle has a charging point. At this charging point, the battery is charged. The charging point is connected to the plug top with an external power supply. This charges the battery. Keeping the battery charged is an essential process. Due to this, it is used almost daily.
5 – Battery Management System (BMS)
The biggest problem-solving part of electric vehicles is BMS. Many battery cells are used in electric cars. Its charging and discharging process goes on. The voltage and current must be constant during the process of charging and discharging the battery cell. All the cells of the battery must be charged and discharged simultaneously. The battery’s UN Evan charging process can damage the battery very quickly. BMS manages all this process. Charging controls the process of discharging. Initially, this was a big problem that was solved by BMS.
6 – Power Control Unit PCU
The most important work in Electric vehicles is that of the Power Control Unit. It acts as the mind of the vehicle. The PCU is solely responsible for the control of the electric vehicle. We get all the parameters like speed, battery, safety, and rpm of the electric vehicle from the PCU. The process of charging and discharging the battery is known to us by the PCU. How much output does the motor get? We know this from the PCU itself. We also get the safety signal of the electric vehicle from the PCU.